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Additive manufacturing for metals

Even though the AM production with metals is considerably more cost-intensive than with polymers, their relevance in industrial use is undisputed. These are the common AM processes for metals.

Powder Bed Fusion

Powder Bed Fusion

Fused with laser = SLM (Selective Laser Melting)

Fused with electron beam = EBM (Electron Beam Melting)

SLM (Selective Laser Melting)

SLM (Selective Laser Melting)

By means of a movable laser beam, metal powder is selectively melted locally layer by layer, thus solidifying a cross-section of the component.

EBM (Electron Beam Melting)

EBM (Electron Beam Melting)

By means of a movable electron beam, metal powder is selectively melted locally layer by layer, thus solidifying a cross-section of the component.

 

Direct Energy Deposition

Direct Energy Deposition

Fused with laser = LENS (Laser Engineering Net Shape)

Fused with electric arc = WAAM (Wire and Arc Additive Manufacturing)

LENS (Laser Engineering Net Shape)

LENS (Laser Engineering Net Shape)

Material is applied and melted simultaneously by a laser beam. The following solidification of the melt generates new layers which are arranged above and next to each other.

 

WAAM (Wire and Arc Additive Manufacturing)

WAAM (Wire and Arc Additive Manufacturing)

Metal wire is melted by arc welding and applied locally in layers to quickly produce large near-net-shape metal structures.

 

Material Extrusion

Material Extrusion

Green part is printed to be sintered afterwards = FDM (Fused Deposition Modeling)

FDM (Fused Deposition Modeling)

FDM (Fused Deposition Modeling)

Wire-shaped metal-containing plastic, so-called filament, is plasticized in a nozzle unit and selectively dosed locally layer by layer.

 

Binder Jetting

Binder Jetting

Joined with bonding agent to be sintered afterwards = BJ (Binder Jetting)

BJ (Binder Jetting)

BJ (Binder Jetting)

Tiny binder droplets are selectively applied locally through many nozzles and in layers onto metal powder. They stick the powder material together.

 

Material Jetting

Material Jetting

Cured with heat to be sintered afterwards = NPJ (Nano Particle Jetting)

NPJ (Nano Particle Jetting)

NPJ (Nano Particle Jetting)

A metal particle solvent fluid is selectively dosed locally by a nozzle unit. The solvent evaporates and the nanoparticles bond together.

 

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